The diagrams below show the development of the horse over a period of 40 million years.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.


The picture illustrates the evolution of the horse throughout the course of 40 million years.

Overall, there are 4 primary phases marking the physical changes of the horse, mainly about its hooves.  

Commencing with the first ancestor of the horse, the Eohippus existed 40 million years back. Not only did the animal have a quite distinctive appearance with the modern horse, but it was also smaller than now. In addition, its foot had 4 3-phalanges toes. Afterward was the Mesochippus, whose shape was nearly similar to the modern-day horse. Furthermore, its 4 toes of each foot turned into 3; and the foot antonomy altered substantially, with big and resilient bones inside.

15 million years ago, the Mesochippus transformed into a new species, namely  the Merychippus. At that time, it had a larger scale including a longer tail. Especially, the mane started to grow, along with some considerable alterations in legs, which only had the same quantity of paws with more joints and a much greater one in the middle. Eventually, the horse we can observe easily nowadays is the latest one. Its tail, mane, and  size are well-evolved, and all of them  approach an appropriate measure for running. Notably, three toes of each limb have merged into a big one.: 


1. Evolve (v) Tiến hóa

2. Evolution (n ) Sự tiến hóa 

3. Phalanges (sing. N), Phalanx (plural N.): Đốt, ngón (tay, chân) 

4. Joint (n ) Khớp (xương) 

5. Leg (n ) Chân

6. Limb (n ) Chi 

7. Hoof (n ) Móng guốc 

8. Anatomy (n ) Giải phẫu, cấu trúc cơ thể 

9. Structure (n ) Cấu trúc 

10. Paw (n ) Móng 

11. Physical changes (n.phr) Những thay đổi về thể chất/ cơ thể 

12. Bones (n ) Xương

13. Remains (n ) Di tích (Xương)

14. Fossils (n ) Hóa thạch 

15. Mane (n ) Cái bờm 

16. Convert into (v)/ Turn into (v)/ Transfrom into (v)/ Change into (v) Biến đổi, thay đổi thành 

17. Merge (v)/ Join (v)/ Fuse (v)/ Integrate (v) into (v) Nhập, Hợp nhất, Kết hợp